Dark self turners refer to equipment or products used to tan skin or make its color darker. Dark self tanners or the sun produce the ultraviolet radiation that is used to achieve this effect. Windburn or reflected light may also produce the same effect if one is exposed to them for a long time.
Dark self tanning may occur unintentionally or intentionally. Individuals who do it deliberately may use chemical products or engage in sun bathing. Unintentional exposure to sun rays for long may present some adverse consequences although there are a few benefits. The advantage is that when the skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation, it synthesizes Vitamin D. Overindulgence in sun bathing may cause skin cancer, sunburn, a higher risk of aging, and depressed functioning of the immune system.
Dark self tanners appear in various shapes, colors, and sizes. They are built of metallic materials such as iron, stainless steel, aluminum, or their respective alloys. There shapes are cylindrical to form a cavity within which a person lies down. Dark self tanners also contain leads which have UV sources. Once one lies down, the UV sources are switched on to illuminate the body. The dimensions of tanners are designed to suit that of adult human beings.[I:http://proarticlesdaily.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/HaywwodHunter0.jpg]
Dark self tanners have predetermined intensity settings and time frames, which one can stay inside. Beyond that time or intensity, the radiation becomes harmful to the skin. Tanning varies among individuals, with some taking a short period while others take too long. The ease with which one tans depends on genetic factors such as natural skin color and type.
There are two ways in which dark self tanners affect the skin color. The ultraviolet beams produced by tanners are classified into UV-A or UV-B. Both variants of UV lead to melanogenesis, which is the process by which melanocytes produce melanin pigment. Melanin are of two types, the red one called pheomelanini and the dark brown one called eumelanin.
The job of melanin is to take in solar radiation therefore protecting body organs. Excess solar rays can cause indirect or direct damage to DNA strings. The body counters these damages by generating and emitting more melanin into skin cells. This increased generation of melanin is primarily triggered by UV-B beams due to direct or indirect photodamage. The tan that results due to this activity is darker and stays longer but only becomes noticeable after seventy two hours of exposure.
UV-A also leads to formation of a tan. In this process, UV-A leads to oxidative stress, which causes oxidation of the existing melanin. When the existing melanin is oxidized, its color changes to dark brown. UV-A produced by dark self tanners or the sun also causes the melanin to redistribute but its quantity remains unchanged. This makes the oxidation of melanin less protective against UV damage than UV-B. Dark self tanners find a lot of application in the fashion industry, where models use them to make their skins dark before going for competitions.
Dark self tanners are expensive equipment. They need good handling and maintenance for them to last long. If great care is taken of dark self tanners, they can last several years.